Electric Vehicle Battery Testing
Electronic vehicle (EV) battery technology is evolving rapidly in terms of both practical utility and significance to the overall auto market. Both hybrid and all-electric vehicles segments are growing steadily, while major auto manufacturers are investing billions in new product development. All this makes reliability and safety testing for EV batteries critically important.
Several testing standards exist, developed by different organizations and each using its own approach to test definition. Even if you’re not doing EV battery testing today, a brief overview of those standards should be worthwhile for any lab manager, test engineer, or lab technician, because it could very well become part of your future workload. The dates listed with the standards below show the most recent version.
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)
IEC 62660-2 (2018) standard: This is a is a reliability and abuse test for auto traction lithium-ion batteries. It includes high temperature endurance, temperature cycling, vibration, shock, crush, electrical short circuit, and forced discharge testing. The vibration portion of the test attempts to characterize battery response to vehicle operation; it consists of a random vibration profile executed over an 8-hour time span for all three axes. The shock portion uses 10 half-sinusoidal pulses in all six spatial directions.
International Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)
SAE J2464 (2009) standard: This is an abuse test, including hazardous substance monitoring, mechanical, thermal, and electrical abuse. The mechanical abuse tests include shock, drop, penetration, roll-over, water immersion, and crush, but no vibration. The shock portion uses 3 half-sinusoidal pulses on all 3 axes in both positive and negative directions.
SAE J2380 (2013): It provides a test procedure for characterizing the effect of long-term, road-induced vibration on the performance and service life of electric vehicle batteries. The random vibration test profiles are executed in all three axes for duration ranging from 9 minutes to 38 hours. During the tests the battery depth-of-discharge is varied. The battery being tested is instrumented to detect not just resonances but also loss of electrical isolation, abnormal battery voltages, and abnormal temperature conditions.
A Standard From the United Nations (UN)
UN 38.3 (2016): The purpose is different for this standard; it has a focus on the safe transportation of lithium metal and lithium ion batteries, including altitude, temperature, vibration, shock and impact/crush testing. The vibration test consists of a 3-hour sine sweep in all three axes. The shock test applies 3 half-sinusoidal pulses on all 3 axes in both positive and negative directions.
Using These Test Standards
The IEC and SAE standards can be purchased from the respective organizations, while the UN standard is freely available.
The Vibration Research support staff is available to help you implement the vibration and shock portions of these standards in VibrationVIEW®